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Cialis

Active Substance: tadalafil
Common Name: tadalafil
ATC Code: G04BE08
Marketing Authorisation Holder: Eli Lilly Nederland B.V.
Active Substance: tadalafil
Status: Authorised
Authorisation Date: 2002-11-12
Therapeutic Area: Erectile Dysfunction
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Urologicals

Therapeutic Indication

Treatment of erectile dysfunction.

In order for tadalafil to be effective, sexual stimulation is required.

Cialis is not indicated for use by women.

What is Cialis?

Cialis is a medicine containing the active substance tadalafil. It is available as tablets (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg).

What is Cialis used for?

Cialis is used to treat men with erectile dysfunction (sometimes called impotence) when they cannot get, or keep, a hard penis (erection) sufficient for satisfactory sexual activity. For Cialis to be effective in this condition, sexual stimulation is required.

Cialis can also be used in men to treat the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (enlarged prostate gland that is not cancerous), which involve problems with the flow of urine.

The medicine can only be obtained with a prescription.

How is Cialis used?

For treating erectile dysfunction, the recommended dose of Cialis is 10 mg taken ‘on demand’ at least 30 minutes before sexual activity. The dose may be increased to 20 mg for men who do not respond to the 10 mg dose. The maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day, but continuous daily use of 10 or 20 mg Cialis is not recommended. Cialis can be used at a lower dose once a day in men who intend to use it frequently (twice a week or more), based on the doctor’s judgement. The dose is 5 mg once a day, but can be lowered to 2.5 mg once a day depending on how well it is tolerated. The medicine should be taken around the same time every day and the appropriateness of the once-a-day dosing should be re-assessed regularly.

For treating men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, or men with both benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction, the recommended dose is 5 mg once a day.

Patients with severe liver problems or kidney problems should not take more than 10 mg in one dose. Once-a-day dosing is not recommended in patients with severe kidney problems, and should only be prescribed to patients with liver problems after a careful evaluation of the benefits and risks of taking the medicine.

How does Cialis work?

The active substance of Cialis, tadalafil, belongs to a group of medicines called 'phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors'. It works by blocking the phosphodiesterase enzyme, which normally breaks down a substance known as cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). During normal sexual stimulation, cGMP is produced in the penis, where it causes the muscle in the spongy tissue of the penis (the corpora cavernosa) to relax, allowing the flow of blood into the corpora, producing the erection. By blocking the breakdown of cGMP, Cialis restores erectile function. However, sexual stimulation is still needed. By blocking the phosphodiesterase enzyme and preventing the breakdown of cGMP, Cialis also improves the blood flow to, and relaxes the muscles of, the prostate and bladder. This may reduce the problems with the flow of urine which are symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

How has Cialis been studied?

Cialis, when taken ‘on demand’ before sexual activity, has been studied in six main studies including 1,328 patients with erectile dysfunction. One of these studies contained only diabetic men. Once-a-day dosing of Cialis was studied in three further studies lasting 12 to 24 weeks and involving a total of 853 patients. In all studies, the effects of Cialis were compared with those of placebo (a dummy treatment), and the main measure of effectiveness was the ability to get and maintain an erection. This was recorded in two questionnaires completed at home.

Cialis has also been studied in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Four main studies comparing Cialis with placebo were carried out in 1,500 patients with the condition, including some who also had erectile dysfunction. The main measure of effectiveness was the improvement in symptoms after 12 weeks.

What benefit has Cialis shown during the studies?

Cialis was significantly more effective than placebo in all studies in erectile dysfunction. For one of the questionnaires, where the maximum score is 30, patients who recorded scores of about 15 before treatment, recorded scores of 22.6 or 25 after receiving Cialis 10 mg or 20 mg, respectively. Overall, in the studies of general populations, 81% of patients reported that Cialis ‘on demand’ improved their erections as compared to 35% of those taking placebo. Patients taking Cialis once a day at doses of 2.5 or 5 mg also reported improved erections compared with those taking placebo.

Cialis given at a dose of 5 mg was also more effective than placebo in all the studies in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the results showing a significant improvement in symptoms after 12 weeks compared with placebo.

What is the risk associated with Cialis?

The most common side effects with Cialis are headache, dyspepsia (indigestion), back pain and myalgia (muscle pain), which are more common at higher doses. For the full list of all side effects reported with Cialis, see the package leaflet.

Cialis must not be used where sexual activity is inadvisable (e.g. in men with heart disease). It must also not be taken by patients who have ever had loss of vision because of a problem with blood flow to the nerve in the eye (non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, NAION). Cialis must not be taken with nitrates (a type of medicine used for angina) or medicines of the class ‘guanylate cyclase stimulators’ such as riociguat (a medicine for high blood pressure in the vessels supplying the lungs, known as pulmonary hypertension). A doctor should consider the potential risks of sexual activity in men who have cardiovascular disease. Because Cialis has not been studied in patients who have had a heart attack within the last three months or a stroke within the last six months, or those who have high blood pressure or heart disorders (irregular heart beat), these men should not use the medicine. For the full list of restrictions, see the package leaflet.

Why has Cialis been approved?

The CHMP decided that Cialis’s benefits are greater than its risks and recommended that it be given marketing authorisation.

What measures are being taken to ensure the safe and effective use of Cialis?

A risk management plan has been developed to ensure that Cialis is used as safely as possible. Based on this plan, safety information has been included in the summary of product characteristics and the package leaflet for Cialis, including the appropriate precautions to be followed by healthcare professionals and patients.

Other information about Cialis

The European Commission granted a marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union for Cialis on 12 November 2002.

For more information about treatment with Cialis, read the package leaflet (also part of the EPAR) or contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Source: European Medicines Agency

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided here is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. This information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. If you have questions about the substances you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

Each 2.5 mg tablet contains 2.5 mg tadalafil.

Excipient with known effect: Each coated tablet contains 87 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Each 5 mg tablet contains 5 mg tadalafil.

Excipient with known effect: Each coated tablet contains 121 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Each 10 mg tablet contains 10 mg tadalafil.

Excipient with known effect: Each coated tablet contains 170 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

Each 20 mg tablet contains 20 mg tadalafil.

Excipient with known effect: Each coated tablet contains 233 mg of lactose (as monohydrate).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Film-coated tablet (tablet).

The 2.5 mg tablets are light orange-yellow and almond shaped tablets, marked 'C 2 ½' on one side.

The 5 mg tablets are light yellow and almond shaped tablets, marked 'C 5' on one side.

The 10 mg tablets are light yellow and almond shaped tablets, marked 'C 10' on one side.

The 20 mg tablets are yellow and almond shaped tablets, marked 'C 20' on one side.

4. Clinical particulars

4.1 Therapeutic indications

Treatment of erectile dysfunction in adult males.

In order for tadalafil to be effective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, sexual stimulation is required.

5 mg only: Treatment of the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult males.

CIALIS is not indicated for use by women.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Erectile dysfunction in adult Men

In general, the recommended dose is 10 mg taken prior to anticipated sexual activity and with or without food.

In those patients in whom tadalafil 10 mg does not produce an adequate effect, 20 mg might be tried. It may be taken at least 30 minutes prior to sexual activity.

The maximum dose frequency is once per day.

Tadalafil 10 and 20 mg is intended for use prior to anticipated sexual activity and it is not recommended for continuous daily use.

In patients who anticipate a frequent use of CIALIS (i.e. at least twice weekly) a once daily regimen with the lowest doses of CIALIS might be considered suitable, based on patient choice and the physician's judgement.

In these patients, the recommended dose is 5mg taken once a day at approximately the same time of day. The dose may be decreased to 2.5mg once a day based on individual tolerability.

The appropriateness of continued use of the daily regimen should be reassessed periodically.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia in adult men (tadalafil 5 mg only)

The recommended dose is 5 mg, taken at approximately the same time every day with or without food. For adult men being treated for both benign prostatic hyperplasia and erectile dysfunction the recommended dose is also 5 mg taken at approximately the same time every day. Patients who are unable to tolerate tadalafil 5 mg for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia should consider an alternative therapy as the efficacy of tadalafil 2.5 mg for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has not been demonstrated.

Dose adjustments are not required in elderly patients.

Men with Renal Impairment

Dose adjustments are not required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. For patients with severe renal impairment, 10 mg is the maximum recommended dose.

Once-a-day dosing of 2.5 or 5 mg tadalafil both for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or benign prostatic hyperplasia is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Men with Hepatic Impairment

For the treatment of erectile dysfunction using on-demand CIALIS the recommended dose of CIALIS is 10 mg taken prior to anticipated sexual activity and with or without food. There is limited clinical data on the safety of CIALIS in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C); if prescribed, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician. There are no available data about the administration of doses higher than 10mg of tadalafil to patients with hepatic impairment.

Once-a-day dosing both for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia has not been evaluated in patients with hepatic impairment; therefore, if prescribed, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Men with Diabetes

Dose adjustments are not required in diabetic patients.

There is no relevant use of CIALIS in the paediatric population with regard to the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Method of administration

CIALIS is available as 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg film-coated tablets for oral use.

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

In clinical studies, tadalafil was shown to augment the hypotensive effects of nitrates. This is thought to result from the combined effects of nitrates and tadalafil on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway. Therefore, administration of CIALIS to patients who are using any form of organic nitrate is contraindicated (see section 4.5).

CIALIS must not be used in men with cardiac disease for whom sexual activity is inadvisable. Physicians should consider the potential cardiac risk of sexual activity in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

The following groups of patients with cardiovascular disease were not included in clinical trials and the use of tadalafil is therefore contraindicated:

- patients with myocardial infarction within the last 90 days,

- patients with unstable angina or angina occurring during sexual intercourse,

- patients with New York Heart Association Class 2 or greater heart failure in the last 6 months,

- patients with uncontrolled arrhythmias, hypotension (<90/50 mm Hg), or uncontrolled hypertension,

- patients with a stroke within the last 6 months.

CIALIS is contraindicated in patients who have loss of vision in one eye because of non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION), regardless of whether this episode was in connection or not with previous PDE5 inhibitor exposure (see section 4.4).

The co-administration of PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, with guanylate cyclase stimulators, such as riociguat, is contraindicated as it may potentially lead to symptomatic hypotension (see section 4.5).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

Before treatment with CIALIS

A medical history and physical examination should be undertaken to diagnose erectile dysfunction or benign prostatic hyperplasia and determine potential underlying causes, before pharmacological treatment is considered.

Prior to initiating any treatment for erectile dysfunction, physicians should consider the cardiovascular status of their patients, since there is a degree of cardiac risk associated with sexual activity. Tadalafil has vasodilator properties, resulting in mild and transient decreases in blood pressure (see section 5.1) and as such potentiates the hypotensive effect of nitrates (see section 4.3).

The evaluation of erectile dysfunction should include a determination of potential underlying causes and the identification of appropriate treatment following an appropriate medical assessment. It is not known if CIALIS is effective in patients who have undergone pelvic surgery or radical non-nerve-sparing prostatectomy.

Tadalafil 5 mg - Prior to initiating treatment with tadalafil for benign prostatic hyperplasia patients should be examined to rule out the presence of carcinoma of the prostate and carefully assessed for cardiovascular conditions (see section 4.3).

Serious cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, unstable angina pectoris, ventricular arrhythmia, stroke, transient ischaemic attacks, chest pain, palpitations and tachycardia, have been reported either post marketing and/or in clinical trials. Most of the patients in whom these events have been reported had pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is not possible to definitively determine whether these events are related directly to these risk factors, to CIALIS, to sexual activity, or to a combination of these or other factors.

Tadalafil 2.5 mg and 5 mg - In patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive medicinal products, tadalafil may induce a blood pressure decrease. When initiating daily treatment with tadalafil, appropriate clinical considerations should be given to a possible dose adjustment of the antihypertensive therapy.

In patients who are taking alpha1 blockers, concomitant administration of CIALIS may lead to symptomatic hypotension in some patients (see section 4.5). The combination of tadalafil and doxazosin is not recommended.

Visual defects and cases of NAION have been reported in connection with the intake of CIALIS and other PDE5 inhibitors. The patient should be advised that in case of sudden visual defect, he should stop taking CIALIS and consult a physician immediately (see section 4.3).

Renal and hepatic impairment (tadalafil 2.5 mg and 5 mg)

Due to increased tadalafil exposure (AUC), limited clinical experience and the lack of ability to influence clearance by dialysis, once-a-day dosing of CIALIS is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment.

There is limited clinical data on the safety of single-dose administration of CIALIS in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Class C). Once-a-day administration has not been evaluated in patients with hepatic insufficiency. If CIALIS is prescribed, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician.

Hepatic impairment (tadalafil 10 mg and 20 mg)

There is limited clinical data on the safety of single-dose administration of CIALIS in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh Class C). If CIALIS is prescribed, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician.

Priapism and anatomical deformation of the penis

Patients who experience erections lasting 4 hours or more should be instructed to seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency may result.

CIALIS, should be used with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (such as angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie's disease) or in patients who have conditions which may predispose them to priapism (such as sickle cell anaemia, multiple myeloma or leukaemia).

Use with CYP3A4 inhibitors

Caution should be exercised when prescribing CIALIS to patients using potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (ritonavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and erythromycin), as increased tadalafil exposure (AUC) has been observed if the medicinal products are combined (see section 4.5).

CIALIS and other treatments for erectile dysfunction

The safety and efficacy of combinations of CIALIS and other PDE5 inhibitors or other treatments for erectile dysfunction have not been studied. The patients should be informed not to take CIALIS in such combinations.

CIALIS contains lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Interaction studies were conducted with 10 mg and/or 20 mg tadalafil, as indicated below. With regard to those interaction studies where only the 10 mg tadalafil dose was used, clinically relevant interactions at higher doses cannot be completely ruled out.

Effects of Other Substances on Tadalafil

Cytochrome P450 inhibitors

Tadalafil is principally metabolised by CYP3A4. A selective inhibitor of CYP3A4, ketoconazole (200 mg daily), increased tadalafil (10 mg) exposure (AUC) 2-fold and Cmax by 15%, relative to the AUC and Cmax values for tadalafil alone. Ketoconazole (400 mg daily) increased tadalafil (20 mg) exposure (AUC) 4-fold and Cmax by 22%. Ritonavir, a protease inhibitor (200 mg twice daily), which is an inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6, increased tadalafil (20 mg) exposure (AUC) 2-fold with no change in Cmax. Although specific interactions have not been studied, other protease inhibitors, such as saquinavir, and other CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and grapefruit juice, should be co-administered with caution, as they would be expected to increase plasma concentrations of tadalafil (see section 4.4). Consequently, the incidence of the adverse reactions listed in section 4.8 might be increased.

The role of transporters (for example, p-glycoprotein) in the disposition of tadalafil is not known. Therefore, there is the potential of drug interactions mediated by inhibition of transporters.

Cytochrome P450 inducers

A CYP3A4 inducer, rifampicin, reduced tadalafil AUC by 88%, relative to the AUC values for tadalafil alone (10 mg). This reduced exposure can be anticipated to decrease the efficacy of tadalafil; the magnitude of decreased efficacy is unknown. Other inducers of CYP3A4, such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, may also decrease plasma concentrations of tadalafil.

Effects of Tadalafil on Other Medicinal Products

In clinical studies, tadalafil (5, 10 and 20 mg) was shown to augment the hypotensive effects of nitrates. Therefore, administration of CIALIS to patients who are using any form of organic nitrate is contraindicated (see section 4.3). Based on the results of a clinical study in which 150 subjects receiving daily doses of tadalafil 20 mg for 7 days and 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin at various times, this interaction lasted for more than 24 hours and was no longer detectable when 48 hours had elapsed after the last tadalafil dose. Thus, in a patient prescribed any dose of CIALIS (2.5 mg- 20 mg), where nitrate administration is deemed medically necessary in a life-threatening situation, at least 48 hours should have elapsed after the last dose of CIALIS before nitrate administration is considered. In such circumstances, nitrates should only be administered under close medical supervision with appropriate haemodynamic monitoring.

Anti-hypertensives (including calcium channel blockers)

The co-administration of doxazosin (4 and 8 mg daily) and tadalafil (5 mg daily dose and 20 mg as a single dose) increases the blood pressure-lowering effect of this alpha-blocker in a significant manner. This effect lasts at least twelve hours and may be symptomatic, including syncope. Therefore, this combination is not recommended (see section 4.4).

In interaction studies performed in a limited number of healthy volunteers, these effects were not reported with alfuzosin or tamsulosin. However, caution should be exercised when using tadalafil in patients treated with any alpha-blockers, and notably in the elderly. Treatments should be initiated at minimal dosage and progressively adjusted.

In clinical pharmacology studies, the potential for tadalafil to augment the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive medicinal products was examined. Major classes of antihypertensive medicinal products were studied, including calcium-channel blockers (amlodipine), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (enalapril), beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (metoprolol), thiazide diuretics (bendrofluazide), and angiotensin II receptor blockers (various types and doses, alone or in combination with thiazides, calcium-channel blockers, beta-blockers, and/or alpha-blockers). Tadalafil (10 mg, except for studies with angiotensin II receptor blockers and amlodipine in which a 20 mg dose was applied) had no clinically significant interaction with any of these classes. In another clinical pharmacology study, tadalafil (20 mg) was studied in combination with up to 4 classes of antihypertensives. In subjects taking multiple antihypertensives, the ambulatory-blood-pressure changes appeared to relate to the degree of blood pressure control. In this regard, study subjects whose blood pressure was well controlled, the reduction was minimal and similar to that seen in healthy subjects. In study subjects whose blood pressure was not controlled, the reduction was greater, although this reduction was not associated with hypotensive symptoms in the majority of subjects. In patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive medicinal products, tadalafil 20 mg may induce a blood pressure decrease, which (with the exception of alpha-blockers - see above) is, in general, minor and not likely to be clinically relevant. Analysis of Phase 3 clinical trial data showed no difference in adverse events in patients taking tadalafil with or without antihypertensive medicinal products. However, appropriate clinical advice should be given to patients regarding a possible decrease in blood pressure when they are treated with antihypertensive medicinal products.

Preclinical studies showed an additive systemic blood pressure lowering effect when PDE5 inhibitors were combined with riociguat. In clinical studies, riociguat has been shown to augment the hypotensive effects of PDE5 inhibitors. There was no evidence of favourable clinical effect of the combination in the population studied. Concomitant use of riociguat with PDE5 inhibitors, including tadalafil, is contraindicated (see section 4.3).

5- alpha reductase inhibitors

In a clinical trial that compared tadalafil 5 mg coadministered with finasteride 5 mg to placebo plus finasteride 5 mg in the relief of BPH symptoms, no new adverse reactions were identified. However, as a formal drug-drug interaction study evaluating the effects of tadalafil and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) has not been performed, caution should be exercised when tadalafil is co-administered with 5-ARIs.

CYP1A2 substrates (e.g. theophylline)

When tadalafil 10 mg was administered with theophylline (a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor) in a clinical pharmacology study, there was no pharmacokinetic interaction. The only pharmacodynamic effect was a small (3.5 bpm) increase in heart rate. Although this effect is minor and was of no clinical significance in this study, it should be considered when co-administering these medicinal products.

Ethinylestradioland terbutaline

Tadalafil has been demonstrated to produce an increase in the oral bioavailability of ethinylestradiol; a similar increase may be expected with oral administration of terbutaline, although the clinical consequence of this is uncertain.

Alcohol concentrations (mean maximum blood concentration 0.08%) were not affected by co-administration with tadalafil (10 mg or 20 mg). In addition, no changes in tadalafil concentrations were seen 3 hours after co-administration with alcohol. Alcohol was administered in a manner to maximise the rate of alcohol absorption (overnight fast with no food until 2 hours after alcohol). Tadalafil (20 mg) did not augment the mean blood pressure decrease produced by alcohol (0.7 g/kg or approximately 180 ml of 40% alcohol [vodka] in an 80 kg male) but, in some subjects, postural dizziness and orthostatic hypotension were observed. When tadalafil was administered with lower doses of alcohol (0.6 g/kg), hypotension was not observed and dizziness occurred with similar frequency to alcohol alone. The effect of alcohol on cognitive function was not augmented by tadalafil (10 mg).

Cytochrome P450 metabolised medicinal products

Tadalafil is not expected to cause clinically significant inhibition or induction of the clearance of medicinal products metabolised by CYP450 isoforms. Studies have confirmed that tadalafil does not inhibit or induce CYP450 isoforms, including CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

CYP2C9 substrates (e.g. R-warfarin)

Tadalafil (10 mg and 20 mg) had no clinically significant effect on exposure (AUC) to S-warfarin or R-warfarin (CYP2C9 substrate), nor did tadalafil affect changes in prothrombin time induced by warfarin.

Tadalafil (10 mg and 20 mg) did not potentiate the increase in bleeding time caused by acetylsalicylic acid.

Antidiabetic medicinal products

Specific interaction studies with antidiabetic medicinal products were not conducted.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

CIALIS is not indicated for use by women.

There are limited data from the use of tadalafil in pregnant women. Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3). As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to avoid the use of CIALIS during pregnancy.

Available pharmacodynamic/toxicological data in animals have shown excretion of tadalafil in milk. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. CIALIS should not be used during breast feeding.

Effects were seen in dogs that might indicate impairment of fertility. Two subsequent clinical studies suggest that this effect is unlikely in humans, although a decrease in sperm concentration was seen in some men (see sections 5.1 and 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

CIALIS has negligible influence on the ability to drive or use machines. Although the frequency of reports of dizziness in placebo and tadalafil arms in clinical trials was similar, patients should be aware of how they react to CIALIS before driving or using machines.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in patients taking CIALIS for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or benign prostatic hyperplasia were headache, dyspepsia, back pain and myalgia, in which the incidences increase with increasing dose of CIALIS. The adverse reactions reported were transient, and generally mild or moderate. The majority of headaches reported with CIALIS once-a-day dosing are experienced within the first 10 to 30 days of starting treatment.

Tabulated summary of adverse reactions

The table below lists the adverse reactions observed from spontaneous reporting and in placebo-controlled clinical trials (comprising a total of 8022 patients on CIALIS and 4422 patients on placebo) for on-demand and once-a-day treatment of erectile dysfunction and the once-a-day treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Frequency convention: Very common (≥1/10), Common (≥1/100 to <1/10), Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000), Very Rare (<1/10,000) and Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

Facial oedema 2. Sudden cardiac death 1,2

(1) Most of the patients had pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors (see section 4.4).

(2) Postmarketing surveillance reported adverse reactions not observed in placebo-controlled clinical trials.

(3) More commonly reported when tadalafil is given to patients who are already taking antihypertensive medicinal products.

Description of selected adverse reactions

A slightly higher incidence of ECG abnormalities, primarily sinus bradycardia, has been reported in patients treated with tadalafil once a day as compared with placebo. Most of these ECG abnormalities were not associated with adverse reactions.

Other special populations

Data in patients over 65 years of age receiving tadalafil in clinical trials, either for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, are limited. In clinical trials with tadalafil taken on demand for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, diarrhoea was reported more frequently in patients over 65 years of age. In clinical trials with tadalafil 5 mg taken once a day for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, dizziness and diarrhoea were reported more frequently in patients over 75 years of age.

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via Ireland. HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL - Dublin 2, Tel: +353 1 6764971, Fax: +353 1 6762517, Website: www.hpra.ie, e-mail: medsafety@hpra.ie, United Kingdom. Yellow Card Scheme, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

Single doses of up to 500 mg have been given to healthy subjects, and multiple daily doses up to 100 mg have been given to patients. Adverse events were similar to those seen at lower doses.

In cases of overdose, standard supportive measures should be adopted, as required. Haemodialysis contributes negligibly to tadalafil elimination.

5. Pharmacological properties

5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Urologicals, Drugs used in erectile dysfunction. ATC code: G04BE08.

Mechanism of action

Tadalafil is a selective, reversible inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). When sexual stimulation causes the local release of nitric oxide, inhibition of PDE5 by tadalafil produces increased levels of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. This results in smooth muscle relaxation and inflow of blood into the penile tissues, thereby producing an erection. Tadalafil has no effect in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in the absence of sexual stimulation.

Tadalafil 5 mg - The effect of PDE5 inhibition on cGMP concentration in the corpus cavernosum is also observed in the smooth muscle of the prostate, the bladder and their vascular supply. The resulting vascular relaxation increases blood perfusion which may be the mechanism by which symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia are reduced. These vascular effects may be complemented by inhibition of bladder afferent nerve activity and smooth muscle relaxation of the prostate and bladder.

Studies in vitro have shown that tadalafil is a selective inhibitor of PDE5. PDE5 is an enzyme found in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, vascular and visceral smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, platelets, kidney, lung, and cerebellum. The effect of tadalafil is more potent on PDE5 than on other phosphodiesterases. Tadalafil is >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE1, PDE2, and PDE4 enzymes which are found in the heart, brain, blood vessels, liver, and other organs. Tadalafil is >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE3, an enzyme found in the heart and blood vessels. This selectivity for PDE5 over PDE3 is important because PDE3 is an enzyme involved in cardiac contractility. Additionally, tadalafil is approximately 700-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE6, an enzyme which is found in the retina and is responsible for phototransduction. Tadalafil is also >10,000-fold more potent for PDE5 than for PDE7 through PDE10.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Tadalafil administered to healthy subjects produced no significant difference compared to placebo in supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean maximal decrease of 1.6/0.8mmHg, respectively), in standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mean maximal decrease of 0.2/4.6mmHg, respectively), and no significant change in heart rate.

In a study to assess the effects of tadalafil on vision, no impairment of colour discrimination (blue/green) was detected using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. This finding is consistent with the low affinity of tadalafil for PDE6 compared to PDE5. Across all clinical studies, reports of changes in colour vision were rare (<0.1%).

Three studies were conducted in men to assess the potential effect on spermatogenesis of CIALIS 10mg (one 6-month study) and 20mg (one 6-month and one 9-month study) administered daily. In two of these studies decreases were observed in sperm count and concentration related to tadalafil treatment of unlikely clinical relevance. These effects were not associated with changes in other parameters, such as motility, morphology, and FSH.

Three clinical studies were conducted in 1054 patients in an at-home setting to define the period of responsiveness to CIALIS on demand. Tadalafil demonstrated statistically significant improvement in erectile function and the ability to have successful sexual intercourse up to 36 hours following dosing, as well as patients' ability to attain and maintain erections for successful intercourse compared to placebo as early as 16 minutes following dosing.

In a 12-week study performed in 186 patients (142 tadalafil, 44 placebo) with erectile dysfunction secondary to spinal cord injury, tadalafil significantly improved the erectile function leading to a mean per-subject proportion of successful attempts in patients treated with tadalafil 10 or 20 mg (flexible-dose, on demand) of 48% as compared to 17% with placebo.

Tadalafil at doses of 2 to 100mg has been evaluated in 16 clinical studies involving 3250 patients, including patients with erectile dysfunction of various severities (mild, moderate, severe), etiologies, ages (range 21-86 years), and ethnicities. Most patients reported erectile dysfunction of at least 1 year in duration. In the primary efficacy studies of general populations, 81% of patients reported that CIALIS improved their erections as compared to 35% with placebo. Also, patients with erectile dysfunction in all severity categories reported improved erections whilst taking CIALIS (86%, 83%, and 72% for mild, moderate, and severe, respectively, as compared to 45%, 42%, and 19% with placebo). In the primary efficacy studies, 75% of intercourse attempts were successful in CIALIS-treated patients as compared to 32% with placebo.

For once-a-day evaluation of tadalafil at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg 3 clinical studies were initially conducted involving 853 patients of various ages (range 21-82 years) and ethnicities, with erectile dysfunction of various severities (mild, moderate, severe) and etiologies. In the two primary efficacy studies of general populations, the mean per-subject proportion of successful intercourse attempts were 57 and 67% on CIALIS 5mg, 50% on CIALIS 2.5mg as compared to 31 and 37% with placebo. In the study in patients with erectile dysfunction secondary to diabetes, the mean per-subject proportion of successful attempts were 41 and 46% on CIALIS 5mg and 2.5mg, respectively, as compared to 28% with placebo. Most patients in these three studies were responders to previous on-demand treatment with PDE5 inhibitors. In a subsequent study, 217 patients who were treatment-naive to PDE5 inhibitors were randomised to CIALIS 5mg once a day vs. placebo. The mean per-subject proportion of successful sexual intercourse attempts was 68% for CIALIS patients compared to 52% for patients on placebo.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia

CIALIS was studied in 4 clinical studies of 12 weeks duration enrolling over 1500 patients with signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The improvement in the total international prostate symptom score with CIALIS 5mg in the four studies were -4.8, -5.6, -6.1 and -6.3 compared to -2.2, -3.6, -3.8 and -4.2 with placebo. The improvements in total international prostate symptom score occurred as early as 1 week. In one of the studies, which also included tamsulosin 0.4 mg as an active comparator, the improvement in total international prostate symptom score with CIALIS 5mg, tamsulosin and placebo were -6.3, -5.7 and -4.2 respectively.

One of these studies assessed improvements in erectile dysfunction and signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with both conditions. The improvements in the erectile function domain of the international index of erectile function and the total international prostate symptom score in this study were 6.5 and -6.1 with CIALIS 5 mg compared to 1.8 and -3.8 with placebo, respectively. The mean per-subject proportion of successful sexual intercourse attempts was 71.9% with CIALIS 5 mg compared to 48.3% with placebo.

The maintenance of the effect was evaluated in an open-label extension to one of the studies, which showed that the improvement in total international prostate symptom score seen at 12 weeks was maintained for up to 1 additional year of treatment with CIALIS 5mg.

The European Medicines Agency has waived the obligation to submit the results of studies in all subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of the erectile dysfunction. See section 4.2 for information on paediatric use.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Tadalafil is readily absorbed after oral administration and the mean maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax ) is achieved at a median time of 2 hours after dosing. Absolute bioavailability of tadalafil following oral dosing has not been determined.

The rate and extent of absorption of tadalafil are not influenced by food, thus CIALIS may be taken with or without food. The time of dosing (morning versus evening) had no clinically relevant effects on the rate and extent of absorption.

The mean volume of distribution is approximately 63 l, indicating that tadalafil is distributed into tissues. At therapeutic concentrations, 94% of tadalafil in plasma is bound to proteins. Protein binding is not affected by impaired renal function.

Less than 0.0005% of the administered dose appeared in the semen of healthy subjects.

Tadalafil is predominantly metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoform. The major circulating metabolite is the methylcatechol glucuronide. This metabolite is at least 13,000-fold less potent than tadalafil for PDE5. Consequently, it is not expected to be clinically active at observed metabolite concentrations.

The mean oral clearance for tadalafil is 2.5 l/h and the mean half-life is 17.5 hours in healthy subjects.

Tadalafil is excreted predominantly as inactive metabolites, mainly in the faeces (approximately 61% of the dose) and to a lesser extent in the urine (approximately 36% of the dose).

Tadalafil pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects are linear with respect to time and dose. Over a dose range of 2.5 to 20 mg, exposure (AUC) increases proportionally with dose. Steady-state plasma concentrations are attained within 5 days of once daily dosing.

Pharmacokinetics determined with a population approach in patients with erectile dysfunction are similar to pharmacokinetics in subjects without erectile dysfunction.

Healthy elderly subjects (65 years or over) had a lower oral clearance of tadalafil, resulting in 25% higher exposure (AUC) relative to healthy subjects aged 19 to 45 years. This effect of age is not clinically significant and does not warrant a dose adjustment.

In clinical pharmacology studies using single dose tadalafil (5 to 20mg), tadalafil exposure (AUC) approximately doubled in subjects with mild (creatinine clearance 51 to 80 ml/min) or moderate (creatinine clearance 31 to 50 ml/min) renal impairment and in subjects with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. In haemodialysis patients, Cmax was 41% higher than that observed in healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributes negligibly to tadalafil elimination.

Tadalafil exposure (AUC) in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A and B) is comparable to exposure in healthy subjects when a dose of 10 mg is administered. There is limited clinical data on the safety of CIALIS in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh class C). If CIALIS is prescribed, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician. There are no available data about the administration of once-a-day dosing of tadalafil to patients with hepatic impairment. If CIALIS is prescribed once-a-day, a careful individual benefit/risk evaluation should be undertaken by the prescribing physician. There are no available data about the administration of doses higher than 10 mg of tadalafil to patients with hepatic impairment.

Patients with Diabetes

Tadalafil exposure (AUC) in patients with diabetes was approximately 19% lower than the AUC value for healthy subjects. This difference in exposure does not warrant a dose adjustment.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, and toxicity to reproduction.

There was no evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, or foetotoxicity in rats or mice that received up to 1000 mg/kg/day tadalafil. In a rat prenatal and postnatal development study, the no observed effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day. In the pregnant rat the AUC for calculated free drug at this dose was approximately 18-times the human AUC at a 20 mg dose.

There was no impairment of fertility in male and female rats. In dogs given tadalafil daily for 6 to 12 months at doses of 25 mg/kg/day (resulting in at least a 3-fold greater exposure [range 3.7-18.6] than seen in humans given a single 20 mg dose) and above, there was regression of the seminiferous tubular epithelium that resulted in a decrease in spermatogenesis in some dogs. See also section 5.1.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars

6.1 List of excipients

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